Manual Testing interview questions with answers
Looking to excel in manual testing and secure a job in the field? Look no further, as we have got you covered with 20 new interview Q&A specially designed for freshers.
Building upon our previously published 20 Essential manual testing interview Q&A, we bring you another set of comprehensive questions and answers that will help you prepare for your next job interview.
In this we aim to equip you with the necessary knowledge and skills that recruiters look for in a manual testing candidate. Whether you are a recent graduate or looking to switch careers, our interview questions and answers will help you gain a better understanding of the manual testing domain and be confident during the interview process.
So, get ready to dive in and enhance your knowledge of manual testing with our latest set of Manual testing interview questions and answers for freshers.
1. What is the difference between static testing and dynamic testing?
Static testing is a type of testing that is done without actually executing the software. It includes activities such as reviewing requirements, design documents, and code to identify defects early in the software development lifecycle. Static testing is typically performed by individuals who are not involved in coding, such as business analysts, testers, and technical writers.
Dynamic testing, on the other hand, is a type of testing that is done by executing the software. It involves running the software with test cases and verifying that it behaves as expected. Dynamic testing is typically performed by testers or developers who have knowledge of the code and the system architecture.
Example: reviewing a software design document to identify defects is an example of static testing, while executing a test case to verify that the software behaves as expected is an example of dynamic testing.
2. What is the role of a test manager in manual testing?
The role of a test manager in manual testing is to lead and manage the testing effort. The test manager is responsible for creating the testing strategy, test plans, and test cases. They also manage the testing team and ensure that all testing activities are completed on time and within budget.
The test manager is responsible for coordinating with other teams, such as development, product management, and project management, to ensure that testing is aligned with the overall project goals. They also report on the testing progress and provide feedback to the team to improve the testing process.
3. What is test environment and how do you set it up?
A test environment is a setup that mimics the production environment and is used to test software. It includes hardware, software, and network configurations that are similar to the production environment.
Setting up a test environment involves identifying the hardware and software requirements, installing and configuring the required software and tools, and setting up the network and other infrastructure components. It is important to ensure that the test environment is isolated from the production environment to prevent any unintended impact on production systems.
Example: setting up a test environment for an e-commerce website would involve creating a separate database for testing, setting up a test server, and configuring the required software, such as the web server and the application server.
4. What is traceability matrix and how do you create one?
A traceability matrix is a document that maps the relationship between requirements and test cases. It ensures that all requirements are covered by at least one test case and helps to track defects back to their originating requirement. It can be created using a spreadsheet or a specialized tool.
To create a traceability matrix, the first step is to identify the requirements and the corresponding test cases. The next step is to map each requirement to one or more test cases. The traceability matrix should also include columns for the status of each requirement and test case and any defects that are associated with each requirement.
5. What is risk-based testing?
Risk-based testing is a testing approach that focuses on testing the areas of the software that are most critical or have the highest risk of failure. It involves identifying the areas of the software that are most important to the business and testing them first. This approach ensures that the testing effort is focused on the areas of the software that are most likely to cause problems.
6. What is mutation testing?
Mutation testing is a technique used to evaluate the effectiveness of the test cases by introducing small changes or mutations in the code. The goal is to identify whether the test cases are able to detect the changes introduced in the code. If the test cases are not able to detect the changes, then they are not effective and need to be improved.
Example: if a test case is designed to verify that a function returns a specific value when given certain inputs, a mutation can be introduced to change the function so that it returns a different value. If the test case still passes, it indicates that the test case is not effective.
7. What is the difference between functional testing and non-functional testing?
Functional testing is focused on verifying that the software meets the functional requirements. It involves testing the software against specific use cases and verifying that it behaves as expected.
Non-functional testing, on the other hand, is focused on verifying that the software meets the non-functional requirements, such as performance, security, and usability. It involves testing the software against specific performance criteria and verifying that it meets the specified requirements.
Example: testing whether a website’s login functionality is working correctly is an example of functional testing, while testing the website’s performance under heavy traffic loads is an example of non-functional testing.
8. What is the difference between load testing and stress testing?
Load testing is a type of performance testing that is used to test the software’s performance under normal or expected loads. It involves simulating a large number of users accessing the system simultaneously and verifying that the software can handle the expected load without any issues.
Stress testing, on the other hand, is used to test the software’s performance under extreme or unexpected loads. It involves simulating a larger load than what the system is designed to handle and verifying that the software can handle the load without crashing or experiencing any other issues.
Example: load testing a website to ensure that it can handle 10,000 concurrent users is an example of load testing, while stress testing the website to see how it performs when the load is increased to 100,000 users is an example of stress testing.
9. What is recovery testing?
Recovery testing is a type of testing that is used to test the software’s ability to recover from failures or errors. It involves intentionally causing a failure or error in the software and verifying that it is able to recover gracefully.
Example: recovery testing can involve shutting down a server while it is running a critical process and verifying that the software is able to recover and resume the process when the server is restarted.
10. What is the difference between positive and negative testing?
Positive testing is a type of testing that verifies that the software works as expected when given valid inputs or conditions. It involves testing the software against expected or positive scenarios.
Negative testing, on the other hand, is a type of testing that verifies that the software can handle unexpected or invalid inputs or conditions. It involves testing the software against unexpected or negative scenarios.
Example: positive testing a website’s login functionality with valid credentials is an example of positive testing, while negative testing the same functionality with invalid credentials is an example of negative testing.
11. What is test data management and how do you perform it?
Test data management is the process of managing the data used in testing. It involves creating, selecting, and managing the test data to ensure that it is relevant and representative of the production data.
To perform test data management, the first step is to identify the data requirements for testing. This includes identifying the types of data needed, the quantity of data, and the sources of data. The next step is to create or select the test data and ensure that it is representative of the production data. Finally, the test data should be managed and updated as necessary to ensure that it remains relevant and useful for testing.
Example: if testing a banking application, test data management would involve creating or selecting test data that represents real-world scenarios, such as creating bank accounts with different balances, transactions, and user profiles.
12. What is root cause analysis and how do you use it in testing?
Root cause analysis is a technique used to identify the underlying causes of defects or issues in the software. It involves analyzing the symptoms of a problem, identifying possible causes, and then drilling down to the root cause of the issue.
In testing, root cause analysis is used to identify the reasons behind the defects found during testing. By identifying the root cause of a defect, it becomes easier to determine the best course of action to fix the issue and prevent it from happening again.
Example: if a software application crashes during testing, root cause analysis would involve analyzing the logs, identifying the symptoms of the problem, and then drilling down to the underlying cause of the issue, such as a memory leak or a coding error.
13. What is boundary value analysis?
Boundary value analysis is a testing technique used to test the software’s behavior at the boundaries of its inputs or conditions. It involves testing the software against the minimum and maximum values of its inputs and verifying that it behaves as expected.
Example: if testing a software application that accepts numeric inputs, boundary value analysis would involve testing the software against the minimum and maximum values of the input, as well as the values just above and below the minimum and maximum.
14. What is domain testing?
Domain testing is a testing technique used to test the software’s behavior across different domains or categories. It involves testing the software against the different types of inputs or conditions that it may encounter in the real world.
Example: if testing a software application that processes different types of payments, domain testing would involve testing the software against different types of payments, such as credit cards, debit cards, and bank transfers.
15. What is a test log and how do you create one?
A test log is a record of the testing activities performed during a testing cycle. It contains information such as the test cases executed, the results of each test case, any defects found, and the actions taken to address the defects.
To create a test log, the tester should document the testing activities performed during the testing cycle in a systematic and organized manner. This can be done using a spreadsheet or other tool to track the progress of the testing and record the results of each test case.
16. What is test coverage and how do you measure it?
Test coverage is a metric used to measure the completeness of the testing activities performed. It indicates the percentage of the software that has been covered by the tests.
To measure test coverage, the tester should identify the requirements or functionality that need to be tested, and then track the progress of the testing against these requirements. Test coverage can be measured by calculating the percentage of requirements or functionality that have been tested.
17. What is a test script and how do you create one?
A test script is a set of instructions or code that automates the testing process. It is used to execute a series of test cases automatically, without requiring manual intervention.
To create a test script, the tester should identify the test cases that need to be automated, and then write the code to execute these test cases automatically. Test scripts can be written in various programming languages, depending on the tools and frameworks being used for automation.
18. What is the difference between test case and test scenario?
A test case is a specific set of inputs or conditions used to test a particular functionality of the software. It describes the steps to be followed to execute the test and the expected results.
A test scenario, on the other hand, is a broader description of the testing activities performed for a particular feature or functionality of the software. It describes the different combinations of test cases and inputs that need to be tested to ensure that the feature or functionality is working as expected.
Example: if testing a banking application, a test case would involve testing a specific function, such as creating a bank account. A test scenario, on the other hand, would involve testing the different combinations of inputs and conditions for the entire account creation process, including entering personal details, selecting an account type, and making an initial deposit.
19. What is the role of a defect triage meeting in testing?
A defect triage meeting is a meeting held to review and prioritize the defects found during testing. It involves analyzing each defect and determining its severity, priority, and potential impact on the software.
The role of a defect triage meeting is to ensure that the most critical defects are addressed first, and that resources are allocated appropriately to fix the defects. The meeting involves stakeholders from different areas of the project, such as developers, testers, and project managers, to ensure that everyone is aligned on the severity and priority of the defects.
Example: if testing a software application, a defect triage meeting would involve reviewing the defects found during testing, determining their severity and priority, and allocating resources to fix the most critical defects first. The meeting would also involve discussing any potential impact on the project timeline or budget, and identifying any areas for improvement in the testing process
20. What is a test harness?
A test harness is a collection of software tools and scripts that are used to automate the testing process. It provides a framework for executing test cases and collecting test results. The test harness is typically used in conjunction with test automation tools to create automated test cases.
Example: a test harness can be used to execute a set of test cases automatically and generate a report with the test results.
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