1. What is manual testing?
Manual testing is a software testing method that involves human intervention to execute test cases and find defects in software applications. It involves a tester manually performing different functions and inputs on the software, comparing the actual results with expected results, and reporting any discrepancies found. Manual testing is usually done in the early stages of the software development life cycle (SDLC) and can be time-consuming and labor-intensive.
2. What is the difference between verification and validation?
Verification is the process of ensuring that a software application meets its functional and non-functional requirements. It involves checking whether the software is being built according to the specifications and whether it satisfies the user’s needs. Validation, on the other hand, is the process of ensuring that the software meets the customer’s expectations and is fit for its intended purpose.
In short, verification is checking whether we are building the right product, whereas validation is checking whether we are building the product right.
3. What is a test case?
A test case is a set of instructions, conditions, or variables that a tester follows to validate a particular aspect of a software application. It includes steps to be performed, input data, expected results, and actual results. Test cases are designed to verify the functionality, usability, reliability, and performance of the software.
For example, a test case for a login page may include steps such as entering a valid username and password, clicking on the “Login” button, and verifying that the user is logged in successfully.
4. How do you write test cases?
To write effective test cases, a tester should follow these steps:
Understand the requirements and functionality of the software application.
Identify the test scenarios and the types of testing required.
Write clear and concise test cases that cover all possible scenarios.
Include input data, expected results, and actual results for each test case.
Prioritize the test cases based on their criticality and importance.
Review and revise the test cases to ensure completeness and accuracy.
5. What is a test plan?
A test plan is a document that outlines the objectives, scope, approach, and resources required for testing a software application. It includes details on the test strategy, test scenarios, test cases, test environment, test data, and test schedules. A test plan helps to ensure that testing is executed systematically and efficiently and that all necessary requirements are covered.
6. What is the difference between smoke testing and regression testing?
Smoke testing is a type of testing that is performed to verify whether the most critical functions of a software application are working correctly. It is usually done before any extensive testing and aims to identify any major defects that may affect the overall quality of the software. Regression testing, on the other hand, is a type of testing that is done to ensure that changes made to the software do not impact the existing functionality. It involves retesting the previously working functionalities after a code change or enhancement.
In short, smoke testing is done to ensure that the software is stable enough to proceed with testing, while regression testing is done to ensure that the software still works correctly after any changes.
7. How do you prioritize test cases?
To prioritize test cases, a tester should consider the following factors:
Criticality of the functionality being tested
Business impact of the defects found
Complexity of the test case
Probability of finding defects
Time and resources available for testing
Test cases can be prioritized based on high, medium, or low priority levels or using a numeric ranking system.
8. What is the difference between a bug and a defect?
A bug is a coding error or flaw in a software application that causes it to behave differently than intended. It can cause unexpected results, crashes, or data loss a defect, on the other hand, is any issue or problem with the software that deviates from the requirements or specifications. It may or may not be related to coding errors and can include issues with design, usability, performance, or compatibility.
In summary, bugs are coding errors that cause issues in software behavior, while defects refer to any issue or problem with the software that does not meet requirements or specifications.
9. What is exploratory testing?
Exploratory testing is a type of testing that relies on the tester’s experience, intuition, and creativity to find defects in a software application. It involves simultaneous learning, test design, and execution and can be done without pre-defined test cases or scripts. Exploratory testing can help to uncover defects that may be missed in traditional testing methods and can also provide valuable feedback on usability and user experience.
10. What is black-box testing?
Black-box testing is a testing method that focuses on the functionality and behavior of a software application without considering its internal structure or code. Testers perform black-box testing without any knowledge of the software’s internal workings, and the tests are based on the specifications and requirements of the software.
Black-box testing can be used to test both functional and non-functional aspects of the software, including usability, compatibility, and performance.
11. What is the difference between positive and negative testing?
Positive testing is a type of testing that validates the expected behavior of a software application when provided with valid input data. It verifies that the software works as intended when everything goes right.
Negative testing, on the other hand, is a type of testing that validates the behavior of a software application when provided with invalid or unexpected input data. It verifies that the software handles errors and exceptions correctly and fails gracefully without crashing or corrupting data.
In summary, positive testing verifies that software works as intended when everything goes right, while negative testing verifies that software handles errors and exceptions correctly.
12. What is a test script?
A test script is a set of instructions that a tester follows to execute a test case. It includes the steps to be performed, the expected results, and any input data required. Test scripts can be automated or manual and are used to ensure that testing is performed consistently and accurately.
Automated test scripts are written in programming languages and can be executed using testing tools, while manual test scripts are written in plain language and executed by the tester.
13. What is a defect report?
A defect report is a document that describes any issues or problems found during testing. It includes details such as the steps to reproduce the issue, the severity and priority of the defect, and any other relevant information. Defect reports are used to track defects throughout the testing process and to ensure that they are resolved before the software is released.
14. What is the difference between sanity testing and regression testing?
Sanity testing is a type of testing that is performed to ensure that the most critical functions of a software application are working correctly after minor changes or bug fixes. It is a quick and high-level check that aims to confirm that the software is still stable and functional.
Regression testing, on the other hand, is a type of testing that is done to ensure that changes made to the software do not impact the existing functionality. It involves retesting the previously working functionalities after a code change or enhancement.
In summary, sanity testing is done after minor changes or bug fixes to ensure that the software is still stable, while regression testing is done after any changes to ensure that the software still works correctly.
15. What is a test scenario?
A test scenario is a high-level description of a testing situation or condition. It describes the objectives, inputs, and expected outcomes of a group of related test cases. Test scenarios are used to ensure that all possible testing scenarios are covered and that the software is thoroughly tested.
For example, a test scenario for an e-commerce website may be to test the checkout process. It would include inputs such as adding items to the cart, entering shipping and billing information, and selecting a payment method. The expected outcome would be a successful order placement and confirmation.
16. What is a traceability matrix?
A traceability matrix is a document that tracks the relationship between requirements and test cases. It helps to ensure that all requirements are tested and that there are no gaps or overlaps in testing. The traceability matrix shows how each requirement is covered by one or more test cases and can also be used to track defects back to their originating requirement.
17. What is boundary testing?
Boundary testing is a type of testing that verifies the behavior of software at the boundaries of input values. It is done to ensure that the software handles input values correctly and does not produce unexpected results or errors.
For example, if a software application requires an input value between 1 and 100, boundary testing would test inputs such as 0, 1, 100, and 101 to ensure that the software behaves as expected.
18. What is equivalence partitioning?
Equivalence partitioning is a testing technique that divides input values into groups that are expected to behave the same way. It reduces the number of test cases required by testing only one value from each group. This technique is used to identify defects in software that behave differently based on the input data.
For example, if a software application requires an input value between 1 and 100, equivalence partitioning would divide the input values into three groups: values less than 1, values between 1 and 100, and values greater than 100. Testing one value from each group would ensure that all possible behaviors are covered.
19. What is alpha testing?
Alpha testing is a type of testing that is performed by the software development team before the software is released to the public. It is done in a controlled environment and is used to identify defects and issues with the software before it is released to beta testers or the general public.
Alpha testing is usually done in-house and is a critical phase of the software development process. It helps to ensure that the software meets the requirements and is stable and functional.
20. What is beta testing?
Beta testing is a type of testing that is performed by a group of users who are not part of the development team. It is done to identify defects and issues with the software in a real-world environment and to gather feedback from users.
Beta testing is usually done after alpha testing and before the software is released to the public. It helps to ensure that the software is usable and meets the needs of its intended audience.
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manual testing is an essential part of the software development process, and manual testing professionals play a critical role in ensuring the quality and reliability of software applications. By understanding these twenty questions and their answers, candidates can prepare themselves for their interview and demonstrate their expertise in manual testing.
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